Recent clinical and experimental studies suggest that the administration of low molecular weight heparin may reduce the risk of decompensation of liver disease and liver fibrosis. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of enoxaparin on liver fibrosis and hemodynamics in several experimental models of cirrhosis. Methods: Cirrhosis was induced in male SD rats using 3 protocols: 1) Oral gavage with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) twice a week for 12 weeks, 2) Inhalation of CCl4 twice a week for 12 weeks, and 3) Bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery. Rats (n= 8-15/group) underwent daily sc treatment with saline or diverse protocols of enoxaparin: 40 U/kg bw from 8th week of CCl4, 180 U/kg bw from 1st week or 8th week of CCl4, and 180 U/kg from 2nd week of BDL. Control groups of rats gavaged with water or sham-operated rats followed the same protocols. Portal pressure was measured in the ileocolic vein, liver fibrosis was assessed in Sirius Red and Masson’s Trichrome stained liver sections. Ascitic fluid was evaluated for bacterial growth in thioglycolate medium. Ex-vivo liver perfusion experiments were performed for assessing endothelium-dependent and -independent reactivity. Results: Compared with controls, rats with oral CCl4 gavage tended to show decreased survival and body weight gain, both of which were further worsened by enoxaparin 180 U/kg bw (p< 0.01). Rats with CCL4-induced cirrhosis showed altered laboratory parameters (increased INR, AST, ALT, bilirubin / decreased albumin, total proteins, glucose and platelets) regardless of enoxaparin treatment. In all experimental models, cirrhotic rats receiving saline and those receiving enoxaparin showed similar increases in the area of liver fibrosis compared with controls (p< 0.001). Rats with cirrhosis induced by oral CCl4 gavage and by BDL surgery developed increases of portal pressure and spleen-to-bw ratios compared with control rats (p< 0.001), regardless of enoxaparin treatment. Among rats with ascites, a similar proportion presented positive bacterial cultures (CCl4+saline 2 of 7 vs. CCl4+enoxaparin 4 of 8, NS; BDL+saline 1 of 6 vs. BDL+enoxaparin 2 of 7, NS). Potential effects of enoxaparin on hepatic vascular reactivity were only observed in rats receiving enoxaparin 180 U/kg bw from the beginning of CCl4 administration, and consisted of increased portal venous resistance after addition of acetylcholine or S-nitroso acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP, both p< 0.05) and increased sinusoidal resistance after addition of SNAP (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Our experimental data do not support a role of long-term treatment with enoxaparin for improving liver fibrosis, portal hypertension or endothelialdysfunction in cirrhosis.