After liver transplantation (LT), nutritional status can worsen rapidly leading to sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and function) and altered quality of life. Few studies have focused on preventing malnutrition and sarcopenia after LT whereas guidelines for the management of sarcopenia after LT are lacking. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the effect of early nutritional supplementation, after LT, rich in protein, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB, active metabolite of leucine) and energy on muscle mass and function, nutritional status, quality of life and development of complications. Method: A randomized controlled pilot study is conducted including 30 patients who have undergone LT: (1) intervention group (n=15) receiving, in addition to the standard nutritional care, supplements rich in protein, HMB and energy for 12 weeks and (2) control group (n=15) receiving standard nutritional care. Muscle mass (computed tomography scan), muscle function (chair stand test), nutritional status (liver disease undernutrition screening tool) and quality of life (SF-36) are assessed every 3 months before LT, after LT on discharge from hospital and after 12 weeks. Dietary protein intake and physical activity are assessed once a month. Adherence to treatment is monitored by phone calls, by a logbook and by measuring urinary HMB once a month. Preliminary results: Currently, 23 patients awaiting liver transplantation are included. Once transplanted, the patient is randomized into one of the two groups. The mean age of the patients is 53.9 ± 12.0 years. Before LT, 82 % of patients were classified as malnourished. Regarding quality of life, the score of physical (47.4% ± 28.6) and mental (51.1% ± 28.8) health of the SF-36 are significantly lower than the scores of healthy patients of the same age (81.60% and 78.58%, respectively) (p < 0,001). Muscle function is also impaired in those patients (25.1 ± 11.0 s vs. 12.6 s in healthy patients) (p < 0,001). Conclusion: These preliminary data support the need for early nutritional support after LT. Our study could significantly improve the health and quality of life of patients after LT through the primary and secondary prevention of malnutrition and sarcopenia.