Background and aims:Musclewasting (sarcopenia) affects 30 to 70%of cirrhotic patients. The presence of sarcopenia may be associatedwith a worst prognosis in cirrhotic patients awaiting and after livertransplantation (LT). To this day, few studies have evaluated andfollowed muscle mass (in terms of quantity and quality) after LT.The goal of this study was to assess the association between theevolution of sarcopenia and the prognosis of cirrhotic patients beforeand after LT.Method:In total, 94 cirrhotic patients who underwent LT at theMontreal University Hospital Center-Liver Unit were included.Sarcopenia was assessed at the third lumbar level vertebrae using acomputed tomography scan (CT-scan). The diagnostic of sarcopeniawas based on previously established sex-specific cut-off values ofskeletal muscle index. Patients were classified into two groups: (1)persistent or newly developed sarcopenia after LT (Sarc+); (2)resolved sarcopenia or absence of sarcopenia before and after LT(Sarc-). Muscle quality (myosteatosis) was assessed by calculatingintramuscular adipose tissue content. The prognostic factors werecollected 6 months before and during 1 year after LT through medicalrecords and included the number of complications, the episodes ofinfections, the length of stay, and the frequency of readmissions.Results:Sarcopenia persisted or was newly developed (Sarc+) in 62%of the patients (n = 58). It remained absence or was resolved after LTin 38% of the patients (n = 35). Muscle quality was significantlydecreased post-LT (p = 0.034). The group Sarc+ experienced morecomplications pre-LT (p = 0.012) and post-LT (p < 0.001), infectionspost-LT (p = 0.006) and readmissions (p = 0.048) compared to thegroup Sarc-. The length of stay was longer for the group Sarc+ asopposed to the group Sarc- (p < 0.001).Conclusion:Persistent and newly developed sarcopenia after LTappear to have negative outcomes on the prognosis of patients.Interventional strategies to optimize, increase or preserve musclemass could help to improve post-operative recovery as well as thequality of life in patients who have undergone LT.