BACKGROUND: Muscle wasting (sarcopenia) af-fects 30 to 70% of cirrhotic patients. The presence of sarcopenia may be associated with a worst prog-nosis in cirrhotic patients awaiting and after liver transplantation (LT). To this day, few studies have evaluated and followed muscle mass (in terms of quantity and quality) after LT.PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to assess the association between the evolution of sarcopenia and the prognosis of cirrhotic patients before and after LT.METHOD: In total, 94 cirrhotic patients who un-derwent LT at the Montreal University Hospital Center – Liver Unit were included. Sarcopenia was assessed at the third lumbar level vertebrae using a computed tomography scan (CT-scan). The diag-nostic of sarcopenia was based on previously estab-lished sex-specific cut-off values of skeletal muscle index. Patients were classified into two groups: 1) persistent or newly developed sarcopenia after LT (Sarc+); 2) resolved sarcopenia or absence of sarcope-nia before and after LT (Sarc–). Muscle quality (myo-steatosis) was assessed by calculating intramuscular adipose tissue content. The prognostic factors were collected 6 months before and during 1 year after LT through medical records and included the num-ber of complications, the episodes of infections, the length of stay, and the frequency of readmissions.RESULT(S): Sarcopenia persisted or was newly de-veloped (Sarc+) in 62% of the patients (n = 58). It remained absence or was resolved after LT in 38% of the patients (n = 35). Muscle quality was significantly decreased post-LT (p = 0.034). The group Sarc+ ex-perienced more complications pre-LT (p = 0.012) and post-LT (p < 0 .001), infections post-LT (p = 0.006) and readmissions (p = 0.048) compared to the group Sarc−. The length of stay was longer for the group Sarc+ as opposed to the group Sarc− (p < 0 .001).CONCLUSION(S): Persistent and newly developed sarcopenia after LT appear to have negative out-comes on the prognosis of patients. Interventional strategies to optimize, increase or preserve muscle mass could help to improve post-operative recov-ery as well as the quality of life in patients who have undergone LT.